May 23, 1915.
DR. HARVEY W. WILEY.
Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, known nationally as "the pure food man," was born in Kent, Indiana, October 18, 1844. His mother, Lucinda Weir Maxwell, was a granddaughter of Bezaleel Maxwell. She married Preston P. Wiley on March 1, 1832. Of this union seven children were born, of which one, Samuel Maxwell, died in infancy.
The subject of our sketch received his early collegiate training at Hanover College, from which institution he graduated with the A. B. degree in 1867, receiving the degree of A. M. there in 1870. He studied medicine with Dr. S. E. Hampton, of Milton, Kentucky, and entered the Medical College of Indiana at the beginning of the term, 1869, graduating there in 1872. In 1873 he graduated from Harvard and was appointed professor of Medical Chemistry in the college. He discharged the duties of this office until the fall of 1878. From the time of organization until February, 1915, a period of nine years, he served on the Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association. Doctor Wiley is a member of the Medical Society of the District of Columbia, of the American Medical Association, of the American Public Health Association, of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and of the American Therapeutic Society, of which he was president in 1910-11. He says his services to medicine have been honored more in the breach than in the observance, as he has never practiced.
Besides the collegiate degrees already mentioned, he received the B. S. degree from Harvard in 1873. The following honorary degrees have been conferred upon him: Ph. D., Hanover, 1876; LL. D., Hanover, 1898; LL. D., University of Vermont, October 12, 1911; D. Sc., Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, June 19, 1912.
His activities as a medical scientist and chemist have been based upon a long experience as a teacher. From 1867-1870 he was professor of Latin and Greek at Butler College. In 1871 he taught science in the Indianapolis High School. In 1874 he was professor of Chemistry at Butler. And from 1874-1882 he was professor of Chemistry at Purdue and State Chemist of Indiana. He taught in George Washington University, 1899-1914, as Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, and held the position of Consulting Professor of Food Chemistry in the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1905. From 1884 to 1912 Doctor Wiley was secretary of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists.
It was as Chief Chemist of the United States Department of Agriculture (1883-1912), and while Chairman of the Board of Food and Drug Inspection (1907-1912), that he gained a name and national prominence in his relentless stand against food adulteration. Through experimentation and other methods he convinced the public mind that many foods were being treated with drugs, such as sodium benzoate, that were harmful as preservatives. The manufacturing interests financially involved went after Doctor Wiley, and a fight, very interesting to the general newspaper reading public, resulted. But right is right if might is might, and right and Doctor Wiley won, because the contest was to uphold a principle that was for the public weal—pure food. He was heartily supported by the women's clubs, the medical profession and the public at large.
Doctor Wiley has thrice been a member of Juries of Awards at the world's expositions—in 1893 at the Chicago World's Fair; at the Paris Exposition in 1900; and at the Jamestown Exposition in 1907. He has served as United States delegate to the Third International Congress of Applied Chemistry at Vienna, in 1898; to the Fourth Congress in Paris, 1900; to the Fifth Congress in Berlin, 1903; to the Sixth Congress in Rome, 1906; and to the Seventh Congress in London, 1909, when he acted as Chairman of the American Committee.
In 1908 he was Honorary President, Premier Congres International pour la Repression des Fraudes Alimentaries et Pharmaceutiques, Geneva; and in 1909, Corresponding Member for the United States, Societe Universelle de la Crois-Blanche de Geneva. He has three times received decorations: Chevalier Merit Agricole, 1900; Chevalier, Legion d'Honneur, 1909; Elliott Cresson Medal of Franklin Institute, 1910.
A member of twenty-two scientific societies and an honorary member of fourteen institutes and societies, one would hardly expect Doctor Wiley to be much of a club man. Yet he belongs to no less than six: The Chemists' Club of New York, the Chevy Chase Club of Washington, D. C, the Franklin Inn Club of Philadelphia, the Harvard Union of Cambridge, the National Press Club of Washington, D. C, and the Cosmos Club of Washington, of which latter he was president in 1910-12.
Along with many other activities, Doctor Wiley has found time to write books and articles for the magazines. He is contributing editor to Good Housekeeping Magazine. A book on Foods and'Their Adulteration, published by P. Blakiston's Son and Company, Philadelphia, comes from his pen. He has also produced a standard work, in three volumes, on the Principles and Practice of Agricultural Analysis (The Chemical Publishing Company of Easton, Pennsylvania). The Lure of the Land is published by the Century Company of New York.
Though Doctor Wiley retired from public life in 1912, he has not lost interest in public affairs. He is now president of the United States Pharmacopoeial Convention, 1910-15, which is preparing the ninth decennial volume of the United States Pharmacopoeia. He is president of the Citizens' Committee of One Hundred, charged with the safeguarding of the interests of the citizens of Washington against unfair fiscal legislation. He is president of the Mouth Hygiene Association of the United States, looking after the care of the teeth of the nation. He is president of the Columbia Hospital for Women, which is a National Hospital created by the Congress and conducted by a board of trustees consisting of Senators, Representatives and citizens. For the past three years he has been connected with the Redpath Chautauqua and Lyceum Service and has given over three hundred lectures in all parts of the United States. He is a director of one of the largest banks in Washington and personally looks after extensive business interests. He is also a trustee of Hanover College, to which he has made large financial contributions.
On February 27, 1911, Doctor Wiley was united in marriage to Miss Anna C. Kelton, daughter of Major-General John C. Kelton, U. S. A., and Josephine Campbell Kelton. Two children have been born to them: Harvey W. Wiley, Jr., born May 16, 1912, and John Preston Wiley, born February 27, 1914.
Since 1912 Doctor Wiley has spent a large part of his time lecturing, writing, and enjoying himself as a farmer. He owns a plantation in Loudoun County, Virginia, not far from the site of the old home of his great grandfather, Bezaleel Maxwell.
WILEY, Harvey Washingtoni
Agricultural and Food Chemist. Born In Kent County, Indiana, Oct. 18, 1844; son of Preston P. and Lueinda Weir (Maxwell) Wiley. Educ. Hanover Coll., 1863-67; Indiana Medical Coll., 1871; Lawrence School of Harvard Univ., 1872-73. 187879 studied in Germany. A.B., Hanover, 1867. A.'M.. 1870; M.D., Ind. Med. Coll., 1S71; B.S., Harvard. 1873; Ph.D., Hanover, 1S7G; LL.H., Hanover, 1898. State Chemist of Ind., 1881-83; Chief of the Division of Chemistry, 1901—date. Pres. Section C, Assoc, for Advancement of Science, 1886; General Secretary. 1891. Delegate from U S to second, third, fourth, and fifth meetings of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry Member of the Jury of Awards at the Universal Expos at Paris, 1900 Author of: Foods and Their Adulterations," etc. Decorations: Chevalier, Merlte Agrlcnle, 1900; Chevalier, Legion d'Honneur, 1909, etc. Member of: Chemist Club, N.Y.; Chevy Chase Club; Cosmos Club; Nat. Press Club, Wash., and a great many other clubs and societies. Married, Feb. 27, 1911, Anna Campbell Kelton. Home address: 1848 Biltmore St., N.W., Washington, D.C. Business: Bureau of Chemistry, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D.C, U.S.A. WILEY,