Friday, September 30, 2011

HW Wiley JH Covington Subversion of 1st Amendment on Foods & Drugs

USDA-AMA-APhA Racketeering

James Harry Covington founded the law firm Covington & Burling

"The proof of intention in the criminal law," he said "does not mean the metaphysical reading of a man's mind. Specific proof of intent is not necessary; it may be established by evidence of attending facts and circumstances, and therefore the Government can easily show that a false statement on a label regarding a drug is one from which fraudulent intent may be implied. Conviction in all proper cases will be consequently comparatively sure."------ James Harry Covington


The misbranding section of the law did not explicitly refer to curative promises. A food or drug article was misbranded, the law stated, "the package or label of which shall bear any statement, design, or device regarding such article, or the ingredients or substances contained therein which shall be false or misleading in any particular." Wiley and Kebler, in their initial regulations, had aimed this general clause directly at unwarranted assertions that promised relief or cure. At the time questions were raised about the Bureau's interpretation. In view of the differences of opinion prevailing over matters therapeutical, a drug editor suggested, "it will be interesting to know who is to be judge of the truth or falsity of the therapeutical claims which may be made." [16] Certainly among medical practitioners an ancient therapeutic debate had reached a new and bitter stage. In the American Medical Association's effort to improve standards, Association spokesmen were condemning the healing practices of various sects and cults [17]. These groups fought back with vigor, defending their therapies and opposing the AMA's effort to enforce therapeutic monopoly. While such a debate was going on, could Wiley and Kebler, perusing nostrum labels, find firm scientific grounds on which to approve or reject? They themselves took this for granted and, during the first years of the law, so did the trade. Many manufacturers toned down their therapeutic claims. Others did not, but when hauled into court admitted Wiley's view of the law's applicability by pleading guilty [18].

Out in Kansas City an eclectic physician named Johnson decided on a different legal course. He had been vending an assortment of tablets and liquids as "Dr. Johnson's Mild Combination Treatment for Cancer." For this purpose, of course, the concoctions were worthless. Johnson fulfilled the law's requirements as to the accurate labeling of his ingredients. It was solely against his false curative promises that the government brought its suit. The medicine man's lawyers moved to quash the indictment, pleading that Congress had not intended the law to forbid such practices. When the case had run its course, the Supreme Court had agreed. Oliver Wendell Holmes delivered the decision, a tortuous exploration of grammatical construction that could find no proper link between the prohibition of false labeling and assertions of healing potency. Congress was not apt to legislate, Holmes argued, in the debatable realm of what could cure and what could not. This would "distort the uses of its constitutional power to establishing criteria in regions where opinions are far apart." [19]

Charles Evans Hughes wrote a vigorous dissent. His study of the grammar of the law revealed the connection Holmes could not see. He cited the act's legislative history to show that Congress had indeed intended a prohibition of therapeutic nonsense on nostrum labels. Even the makers of medicines had generally assumed the law to be so written, Hughes pointed out, since so many had promptly entered pleas of guilt. Holmes had "impressively described," the dissenting justice said, the conflict that did indeed exist between schools of medicine and the difficulty of legislating in such an uncertain area. "But granting the wide domain of opinion," he added, "and allowing the broadest range to the conflict of medical views, there still remains a field in which statements as to the curative properties are downright falsehoods and in no sense expressions of judgment. This field I believe this statute covers." This type of downright falsehood was what Johnson had placed on the labels of his cancer cure.

But Holmes had the majority with him. The decision, wrote an incensed George Creel, was "first aid to fraud and murder," leaving the nostrum provisions of the law with "as much bite as a canton flannel dog." Wiley was angry. Maybe Holmes understood his opinion, the chief chemist said. I don't. All I can make out is that it gives anyone the right to lie about drugs whenever he feels like it." Wiley preferred to stand with Hughes. "He disagreed," the chemist added bitterly, "probably, because he had not been on the bench long enough to know better." [20]

The decision in the Johnson case, said President Taft, meant that over 150 cases of the same type pending in the courts, "involving some of the rankest frauds by which the American people were ever deceived," would have to be dismissed. He urged the Congress promptly to pass a law to plug the hole. Holmes had made clear—and Hughes had agreed—that "any attempt to legislate against mere expressions of opinion would be abortive." Thus the new law should proscribe only "knowingly false misstatements of fact as to the effect of the preparations." Such a measure, the President was persuaded, would control "the greater part of the evil." [21]

Congressman Swagar Sherley of Kentucky introduced a bill, and it was passed by Congress "without any blare of trumpets." The amendment to the food and drug law declared an article misbranded "if its package or label shall bear or contain any statement, design, or device regarding the curative or therapeutic effect of such article or any of the ingredients or substances contained therein, which is false and fraudulent." [22]

In view of the Johnson decision, "false and fraudulent" was as strong a phrase as Congress could very well enact. But would proving fraud be such an impossible task as to offer quackery an open road? Congressman Sherley acknowledged this hazard: "very frequently," he said, the government would have difficulty "in convicting the guilty man." A fellow Congressman, James Covington of Maryland, foresaw no untoward danger. "The proof of intention in the criminal law," he said "does not mean the metaphysical reading of a man's mind. Specific proof of intent is not necessary; it may be established by evidence of attending facts and circumstances, and therefore the Government can easily show that a false statement on a label regarding a drug is one from which fraudulent intent may be implied. Conviction in all proper cases will be consequently comparatively sure." [23]

Wiley was less cheerful. The dangers Congressman Sherley saw as likely, Wiley viewed as certain. The word "fraudulent" in the amendment, he said, was a "joker" which would nullify the law's intent. Congress had "given the manufacturers of fake cure-alls another lease on life and enabled the roots of fraud and corruption to sink deeper into the soil of protective legislation-protective to vested interests, not to public welfare." But enforcing the Sherley Amendment was not to be Harvey Washington Wiley's responsibility. Five months before Taft signed the law, Wiley had resigned his post as chief of the Bureau of Chemistry. The decision had been, perhaps, impending since 1906. The talents required for crusading in behalf of a law are not the same talents required for enforcing it. The measure was a pioneering one, and weaknesses in drafting became apparent, especially a lack of clarity as to enforcement responsibilities. Wiley's categorical stand against food preservatives antagonized industries with great political power, and this power they brought to bear. President Roosevelt, becoming unsure of Wiley's science, created checks upon his single-banded action within the Bureau which hamstrung the chief chemist. Bitter internecine warfare developed which, in Taft's administration, led to a charge of malfeasance against Wiley. Although he was vindicated by the President, Wiley felt that Taft should then have proceeded to oust his enemies and restore his authority. This the President did not do. Embittered, tired of fruitless fighting, and anxious to increase his income because of his recent marriage, Wiley quit [24].

In the whole protracted struggle, patent medicines played almost no part at all. One of Wiley's opponents within the Department of Agriculture had chided the chemist for working up weak food cases when so many strong cases might be developed against vicious nostrums sold within "the shadow of the National Capitol." Granted that the complaint possessed some merit, it has all the earmarks of a blow aimed at embarrassing Wiley in the continuing battle. At any rate, the Johnson case had already been decided against the government in the District Court [25]

Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Dana Beal Heart Attack- Sept 27, 2011

Incarcerated activist Dana Beal has suffered a heart attack, 7 days after being sentenced, and was in critical condition, the morning of Sept 27, 2011. According to to AJ Weber:
he was in a holding cell awaiting transfer when he had an arrest. They defibed him brought him to local hosp the madison. He is in cold room in coma. more in next 48 hrs
According to CelebStoner "He's currently in ICU at St. Mary's Hospital in Madison."

There ought to be efforts to free him, perhaps a petition to the President, and how about some pro bono legal work from Covington & Burling?

Sign Petition to FREE Dana Beal:!/petition/release-irvin-dana-beal-prison-recently-sentenced-and-suffered-heart-attack-dana-coma-release-dana/5L6LNXfT

Covington & Burling's Continuing Involvement With Drug Policy Organizations

Longtime Tobacco-Pharmaceutical Legal Powerhouse

(excerpt: dated Wednesday, September 21st, 2011)

"The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) has received free legal representation in a lawsuit against the DEA over a license to grow marijuana for federally regulated research.

The D.C.-based law firm Covington & Burling LLP, one of the foremost law firms representing the pharmaceutical industry, has offered pro-bono legal representation to the research group to appeal the DEA’s August 15 final order in the First Circuit Court of Appeals. MAPS estimated the law firm saved them $175,000 in legal costs.

The DEA rejected University of Massachusetts professor Lyle Craker request to obtain a license to grow marijuana to study its potential medical uses, claiming that the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) can be the only one to supply marijuana for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated research."
The Drug Policy Alliance conference schedule devotes significant time to Marijuana, but with weirdly little for Coca , (even in 2011 the year Bolivia denounces the 1961 'narcotics' conference, with Covington & Burling, already known for advising the DPA predecessor DPF); doing significant work upon Marijuana, but nothing as far as I know regarding Coca, despite the tremendous potential for good.

The Covington & Burling website (Health page, early 2005) acknowledged the law firm's work with the Drug Policy Foundation and other organizations involved with drug policy reform:

Commonwealth v. Hutchins. We represent Mr. Hutchins and the interests of similarly situated patients for whom the medical use of marijuana is necessary, in a variety of state and national initiatives aimed at decriminalizing such use. We work closely with the Drug Policy Foundation, the Marijuana Policy Project and sympathetic members of Congress and selected state legislatures. American Civil Liberties Union - Drug Policy Litigation Project. We were asked to assist the ACLU in preparing a letter to the Drug Enforcement Agency in support of an application by a professor at the University of Massachusetts for registration to manufacture or distribute controlled substances for the purposes of a scientific study on medical marijuana. Specifically, they requested that we opine on the consistency of the application with the United States' treaty requirements pursuant to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. We have continued to provide advice on related aspects of this matter.
That the firm would use the present tense
"We work closely with the Drug Policy Foundation, the Marijuana Policy Project and ... the American Civil Liberties Union Drug Policy Litigation Project"
in 2005, five years after the Drug Policy Foundation was superseded by the Drug Policy Alliance (by merging with the Lindesmith Institute in July 2000), appears to suggest that Covington & Burling works closely with the Drug Policy Alliance.

Notably, the Drug Policy Alliance has continued the Drug Policy Foundation's post 1992 malevolent malaise towards the Coca issue, and that'elephant in the living room' continuing mega boondoggle - public health disaster of pro Tobacco anti Coca Agricultural Mercantilism, embodied in U.S. statute since the 1906 Food and Drugs Act.

Monday, September 26, 2011

Evo Morales Accuses US of Chocking Bolivia's Economy

CNN gets some of the story:

New York (CNN) -- The United States metes out certifications to other countries for their cooperation on drug trafficking, but as the nation with the biggest demand for illegal drugs, who evaluates the United States? Bolivian President Evo Morales posed that question in an interview with CNN en Español, reiterating a recent comment that drew attention.

Relations between Bolivia and the United States are at a low point as the Morales government accuses the United States of trying to destabilize it, while the United States counters that Bolivia is dropping the ball in the fight against drugs.

Since coming into office, Morales has expelled the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration and the U.S. ambassador.

"Since we don't have an ambassador here, since we don't have DEA, and no dead and injured and no military bases from the U.S. here, they decertify us," Morales said Monday in the interview, which came during his visit to New York to attend the United Nations General Assembly.

Morales accused the DEA and the U.S. State Department of using their agents in other countries for political purposes.

"The origins of drug trafficking are in the demand, not the supply," he said. "So I'd like for some international organism to certify or decertify the United States for their responsibility on the issue of drug trafficking."

The Bolivian president vowed to take his idea to regional bodies in Latin America to see if other countries agree.

Morales, an ally of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, accused the United States of trying to taint all "anti-imperialist" countries with the drug-trafficking label.

The comment was related to the arrest this year of retired Bolivian Gen. Rene Sanabria, a former anti-drug czar who was arrested in Panama and extradited to the United States to face drug trafficking charges. At the time of his arrest, Sanabria was working as an aide to a minister close to Morales.

Morales alleged that the arrested general and the United States were working together on a plan to smear his country's reputation.

"We have information that he is negotiating his years in prison in exchange for something," Morales said.

His anti-American rhetoric comes at a time when Morales is facing domestic pressures.

Indigenous communities are protesting the proposed construction of a highway through a national park where they live. The indigenous groups have also called for an end to hydrocarbon extraction from the area.

Morales called the demands unrealistic, noting that 90% of Bolivia's natural gas flows through that area.

"To cease means to leave the Bolivian people without resources," he said, adding that the government remains open to dialogue with the protesters.

Last month, he also blamed the United States for stoking protest marches against the highway.


Alas, the mainstream media seems uninterested in any deeper analysis; consider:

"Morales, an ally of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, accused the United States of trying to taint all "anti-imperialist" countries with the drug-trafficking label."

"Ani-imperialist"- ah yes a useful slogan that implies (but alas does not really mean) opposition to an ancient regime: a slogan that obscures the belying political dynamics. Consider as a start how Evo Morales is presented in the garb of communism, with his political party the "Movement Towards Socialism". Consider the times that Evo has been photographed with Fidel Castro and Hugo Chavez- each the proverbial "anti-imperialist".

If these men were truly "anti-imperialist" what can be said about any possible efforts by Evo Morales to persuade either Cuba nor Venezuela to re-legalized Coca Leaf? If either Castro nor Chavez were such 'anti-imperialists" do they allow the sale of coca teas and other beverages, nor require tobacco products to NOT be exempt from retail labeling of ingredients?

Indeed, among the so-called left wing 'progressive' 'environmentalist' swaths of intelligentsia one will see infinitely more upon that single highway project in Bolivia, than upon the whole issue of, ahem, imperial MERCANTILISM, banning Coca perverting it into concentrated cocaine for the sake of protecting cigarettes.

That the word "mercantilism" is so rarely heard, in contrast to the fallacy of anti-capitalism, speaks volumes about the jesuitical rot of academia.

Sunday, September 25, 2011

Freemason FD Roosevelt Approved MJ Prohibition

Freemasonic U.S. Presidents betrayed Freedom of Medicine and Diet with the 1906 Food and Drug Act and 1937 Cannabis Prohibition- providing an entity to be sued for Prohibition's Damages

Signed the Marijuana Tax Act- August 2, 1937


Initiated: October 11, 1911, Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City. Brother Roosevelt participated in the Raising of his son Elliott (1910-1990) on February 17, 1933, in Architect's Lodge No. 519, also in New York City. He was present, but did not participate in the Degrees when two other sons, James (1907-1991) and Franklin D., Jr. (1914-1988) became Members of their brother Elliott's Lodge, on November 7, 1935. Brother and President Roosevelt was made the first Honorary Grand Master of the Order of DeMolay on April 13, 1934 at the White House.

Governor of New York, 1929-1933.

Freemason Theodore Roosevelt Gave Us the 1906 Food and Drug [cigarette market protection] Ac

Tobacco State North Carolina U.S. Congressman Introduced 1937 MJ Prohibition

North Carolina, one of the biggest traditional locations for growing the infamous 'Virginia Bright Leaf' type of Tobacco- bred to promote consumption/addiction

Birth: Nov. 7, 1863
Laurel Springs
Alleghany County
North Carolina, USA
Death: Oct. 1, 1954
Laurel Springs
Alleghany County
North Carolina, USA

U.S. Congressman. Elected to represent North Carolina's 8th and 9th Districts in the United States House of representatives, serving from 1911 to 1953. Also served as a member of North Carolina State Senate in 1908.

Family links:
James Horton Doughton (1899 - 1962)*

Lillie Stricker Hix Doughton (1870 - 1946)*

*Point here for explanation

Search Amazon for Robert Lee Doughton

Laurel Springs Baptist Church Cemetery
Laurel Springs
Alleghany County
North Carolina, USA

Maintained by: Find A Grave
Record added: Oct 17, 2002
Find A Grave Memorial# 6859422

Saturday, September 24, 2011

Dana Beal September 20, 2011

On The Pharmaceuticalization of Marijuana- Lester Grinspoon


There is little doubt that pharmaceutical companies will develop some cannabinoid products which will be at least as useful as marijuana, and some will be uniquely so. Also, some may be expected to be free or nearly so of psychoactivity; this will allow them to be placed outside of the constraints of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Act classification, or at most assignment to Categories IV or V. They will require prescription and they will be expensive, but there will be a market. What is uncertain, and of course critical to a decision to develop new cannabinoid products, is the anticipated size of the market. The "pharmaceuticalization" of marijuana will only succeed if the pharmaceutical products displace marijuana as a medicine. This seems unlikely in view of the latter's limited toxicity, easy availability, low cost relative to pharmaceuticals, ease with which it can be self-titrated, growing access to vaporization devices, and its remarkable medical versatility. And if the legal costs of using marijuana are presently not so high that most people choose marijuana over dronabinol, it is difficult to imagine a level of enforcement which would eliminate use of the plant material.

Friday, September 23, 2011

The Absurdity of Simply Defining 'Cocaine' as a drug of addiction

Even more intriguing to Freud were a series of clinical papers published in George Parke’s house organ, the Therapeutic Gazette. In 1878, an American physician named W.H. Bentley described successfully treating a patient addicted to the “opium habit” with coca. Two years later, in 1880, Bentley reported his success in treating both opium and alcohol abusers with cocaine. With the twenty-twenty vision of historical hindsight, it is easy to shake one’s head at such a harebrained theory. Substituting one addictive drug for another was a common medical means of treating substance abuse in the late nineteenth century and I fact, remains so to this day. It is impossible to give an accurate number of how many morphine addicts were unwittingly turned into cocaine addicts by well-intentioned physicians during this area; similarly, alcoholics were often prescribed morphine to the point of addiction, and later, cocaine and even nicotine to help them kick their drinking habits. At the dawn of doctors’ recognition of addiction as a disease, what all these games of medical musical chairs most reliably did was to create “new and improved addicts” – p76 An Anatomy of Addiction- Howard Markel

This quote is my nomination for most arrogant, deliberate mis-direct, representing the absurdity of viewing or defining a particular drug as primarily a drug of addiction, as done by the title of this book.

The term here is a negative spin confusing a phenomenon of physical withdrawal with another of toxic-mania, and mistakenly applied to the drug in general. We are to forget the real benefits of coca, by confusing Coca with cocaine either dilute or at any level of infinitely higher concentration. Cocaine is more correctly a drug of either great benefit as a superior alternative to caffeine and nicotine, or one of great detriment of toxic-mania- all depending upon the context, particularly of form.

Isolated cocaine was not even commercially available in 1880.

Yet – makes this deliberate misstatement of fact – Bentley used Coca leaf extract, diluted , not isolated cocaine concentrated.

An infinitely better account appears within the book by Joseph Kennedy, Coca Exotica:

In July of 1878, Bentley was called to a house somewhere in the hills of Kentucky; when he arrived there, he was astonished to find a tenth of an acre in opium poppies (Papaver somniferium). The lady of the house, a forty year old widow, confessed to the doctor that she had been an opium eater for quite some time, consuming about a half pound of the drug a year. Bentley says: “I persuaded here to give up the habit. She declared that she could not. She agreed, however, to try, so I sent her one pound of the fluid extract of coca to begin with. When used up, she sent for half the quantity, stating that she thought it would complete the cure. I sent her one half pound. She sent me her opium crop that winter, with the message that the medicine had cured her.

The medicine Bentley prescribed for her was the fluid extract of coca manufacture red by Parke Davis and Company in Detroit, Michigan. The preparation they offered was standardized in the United States Pharmacopoeia, 6th to 8th editions (1880—90), and contained 0.5 grams of coca alkaloids per one hundred cubic centimeters of solution. Of course, cocaine was one of those alkaloids contained in the fluid extract, but according to Bentley’s recommended dose (1 drachm of fluid extract when the desire for whiskey or opium is quite urgent), a patient would only consume .0185 grams (slightly more then 1/200 of a gram) of cocaine per dose, and even then it would automatically be taken in conjunction with coca’s natural complement of other alkaloids; because it was prescribed to be drunk, this solution would necessarily have to pass through the liver and kidneys. In these two important respects the use of the fluid extract closely resembled the Indian method of taking the drug, a procedure proven harmless by centuries of use. It is also interesting to note that one would have to take 13.5 one drachm doses of Parke Davis fluid extract just to get the amount of cocaine alkaloid consumed daily by an average Peruvian Indian. This is based upon Hanna’s study that estimates the average Indian digests approximately 0.25 grams of cocaine a day by normal coca use.


Bentley’s idea of curing these addicts with coca caught on immediately and was put into practice throughout the country. Reports of its effectiveness began to appear as a regular feature in the Therapeutic Gazette as well as the Philadelphia Medical Times, New Remedies, Medical and Surgical Report, and the New York Medical Review.

As a valuable antidote to the opium habit, it is spoken highly of by Dr. W. H. Bentley, of Kentucky; Dr. G. Leforge, of Illinois; Dr. H. F. Stimmell, of Tennessee, and many others. Dr. R. P. Henderson states in the Louisville Medical Neii's that one patient who took as much as a pint of tincture of opium in a week, was cured by taking the coca in drachm doses as often as he felt that he could no longer do without the laudanum. He used it frequently for two or three days, gradually lessening the dose until cured. Dr. C. H. Poizat, of Eaton, Philadelphia, mentions in the Medical and Surgical Reporter two cases of asthma, in which coca afforded decided relief.

Erythoxylon Coca on the Opium and Alcohol Habits

Dr. Bentley, in Therapeutic Gazette, reports the following cases:

Miss M., a sprightly, intelligent blonde, aet. 30. I had been acquainted with her for 15 years, and for several years of our early acquaintance, when the family lived near me, was her father's family physician. In June, 1878, I accidentally met her on a train. Eight years previous she had a protracted attack of pneumonia, during which she contracted the habit of using morphine, which she still retained. These facts were well known to me, so I took occasion to ask her if she had left it off. She replied in the negative, and told me that she then required 10 grs. twice a day. She had tried nostrums and had visited some advertising quack in another State, to no purpose. I then suggested the erythoxylon, fully explaining its action. The result was I prescribed a pound for her. I received a note from her when she had used this. She was much encouraged, and had ordered two pounds more. This quantity completed the cure. I saw her recently, when she assured me that she had no desire for morphine.

Case 2. July, 1878, was called to a case some 15 miles distant, and nearly all the way "in the hills." I was quite astonished to find about •one-tenth of an acre in poppies. On inquiry, the lady of the house, a widow, about 40, told me that she was an "opium eater," to use her expression, and that she used her own opium. From what I could learn, she used about half a pound of the drug a year. 1 persuaded her to give up the habit. She declared that she could not. She agreed, however, to try, so I sent her ? lb. fluid. extract coca to begin with. When used, she sent for half the quantity, stating that she thought it would complete the cure. I sent her a half pound. She sent me her opium crop that winter, with the message that the medicine had cured her.

Case 3. An aged lady, set. 72. She had been addicted to the habit for 35 years. I persuaded her to try the coca. She was then taking 2 drachm doses of opium three times a day. She said she felt sure she would be unable to leave off the opium, but as she was wealthy and extravagant, she readily consented to try the coca. She procured two pounds on my prescription, and began its use. The progress of the case is rather amusing. She uses one for a time, and then resorts to the other. Sometimes she does not taste opium for a fortnight, using the coca during the time, then she returns to her opium, and thus she alternates. Her doses of opium have been reduced, to as little, I think, as 10 grs., and her general health has greatly improved. Before using the coca, she was a great sufferer from duodenal dyspepsia. She has so far improved, in this respect, that she rarely suffers in this particular, and it is a wonder, too, for she is a ravenous feeder, and as fond of "cake and pastry" as a child, and, withal, uses a great deal -of wine.

Case 4. An unmarried man, aet. 27. Contracted the "opium habit" five years previous to using the coca. Had become a great slave to morphine. June, 1879, I put him upon coca. He ordered three pounds at the beginning. In October following, I met him, and he assured me that he was entirely relieved of the habit, and had one pound of his medicine left.

Medical summary, Volume 2

A FEW years since I procured six or eight pounds of the saturated tincture of erythoxylon coca from a druggist of Philadelphia, with a view of testing the virtues of the plant, therapeutically. I used all with the exception of a single bottle, within the course of about fifteen months. All the cases, but one, in which I prescribed it, were those of a chronic character affecting the lungs, and simulating phthisis.^ The excepted case was one of "nervous dyspepsia" complicated with uterine troubles and hysteria. The patient was married, the mother of two children, the youngest six months old, while the mother was herself 23 years of age. She was greatly emaciated, was very despondent, and was, withal, addicted to the opium habit. It was as a substitute for her accustomed morphine, the use of which I absolutely forbade, that I directed the coca, in drachm doses, three times a day. It answered the purpose admirably.

In short, the coca gave me entire satisfaction in all the cases in which I used it, acting promptly as a nervous stimulant, allaying irritation, reviving the despondent without depressing reaction, and all without producing febrile or other unpleasant symptoms. My only objection was the high price, which was such as to prevent the druggists from ordering it, unless I would guarantee its sale. I still had one pint on hand; which I used myself recently, and the good results were so remarkable, and I noted its action so carefully, that I think a detail of the case may be both of interest and utility to your readers.

My age is 43, height 5 feet 7 inches, weight 125 pounds, complexion rather dark, hair thin, fine, and dark; eyes dark, but neither hair or eyes black; the nervous temperament largely prevails; easily and unpleasantly affected by most stimulants and narcotics, and cannot bear opiates, even in medicinal doses, March 5th, 1878, had a most severe and prostrating attack of continued fever, which came very near a fatal termination. The fever, entirely subsided on the tenth day, leaving me greatly emaciated in body, and completely prostrated in strength. Convalescence was extremely tardy. My appetite returned slowly and digestion was quite good, yet there was not a corresponding return of strength. Alcoholic stimulants were used in moderation, and tonics, including both the mineral and vegetable, very freely. All seemed to be of little service, for, at the end of three weeks, I had made but little progress in the accumulation of either flesh or strength. At this juncture, I resolved to try the erythoxylon tincture. I accordingly began with teaspoonful doses three times a day, taken with an ounce of water before meals. The salutary effects were perceptible with the second dose. My appetite rapidly increased, and, although in a few days I grew to partaking too heartiest meals of flesh, vegetables, and at dinner, desert in variety, I would suffer from violent hunger, long before the hour for the next regular meal. My digestion, which as a rule, is feeble, became, under the use of the drug, perfect, while assimilation was likewise complete, and return of strength rapid.

To determine whether all was due to the medicine, I occasionally left it off a few days, when I soon could perceive that both appetite and digestion began to fail. Both always returned as above stated, with the resumption of the medicine.

On a few occasions, I experimented with large doses, or the ordinary doses repeated at short intervals, neither of which plans agreed with me. In either instance, if I pushed the drug, I became weak and tremulous, and several hours were required to wear off the unpleasant feelings.

A drachm dose, taken at any time, was followed immediately by feeling of agreeable warmth in the stomach, which was soon succeeded by moderate stimulation, exhilarating mental activity, and filling me with the most pleasant emotions. These effects would last from three to four hours, and were never succeeded by depression or other ill consequences. If I took a dose an hour after meals, I was never hungry until three hours after. Taken when quite hungry, the appetite was appeased for about the same period. Taken without the water, its effects were not so rapid, nor at any time so well pronounced.

After using all, I experienced considerable desire for the medicine for three or four days, which occurred two or three times subsequently at intervals of some days.
At no time did I ever detect any change in the numbers either of my pulse or respirations. I shall hereafter give Erythoxylon Coca a thorough trial in "wasting diseases," tardy convalescence from acute maladies, and certain forms of dyspepsia, and carefully test it in the "opium habit."

The Therapeutic gazette, Volume 1

[Written for the Therapeutic Gazette.]
Erythroxylon Coca.
By W. H. Bentley, M. D. I_L. D., Valley Oal', Ky.

THE first time I heard of Erythroxylon Coca, was in 1869, when I received a pamphlet with the request to take, on agency, certain proprietary medicines therein described, and which were prepared by an advertising physician, now deceased, but then living in one of the eastern states. Among them was a very highly recommended cough mixture, certified to be very efficacious in all chronic diseases of the lungs and of the air passages. The medicines were not nostrums as all the formulae were given, or, at least, purported to be given. Among the ingredients one with the title "Ninga," was mentioned. A very long and minute description of this plant ensued. Highly stimulant, tonic and nutritive properties were claimed for this plant, which the writer claimed to have discovered from information received from the natives, and especially the Indians, during his South American travels, extending over a period of several years. Among other things, it was claimed that the Indians would perform long journeys with no other food than a few "Ninga" leaves.

I found that the writer possessed much learning, a good deal of genius and superior shrewdness. I wrote to him declining the sale of his medicines, but asking a confidential, yet candid, statement in regard to the wonderful plant, and asking for a sample at even an unreasonable price. I received a reply in due course of mail informing me that the statements in the pamphlet were true, entirely declining to furnish me any of the plant, but stating that " Ninga" was one of the local Indian names, and that the botanical name was Erythroxylon Coca.

At that time I had a lay friend residing in South America with headquarters in Lima, though his business required much travel, and, in this way, he visited Paraguay, Bolivia, Equador, etc. I knew, too, that he was perfectly reliable, for we had been room-mates during two years in college, graduating in the same class. After this he went to the law, I to medicine. He soon abandoned his profession for trade, and went to reside in South America as above stated. To this friend I wrote, requesting all the information he could conveniently obtain from South American physicians respecting the Erythroxylon, (provided it was not a myth,) together with a small supply of the plant.

In about nine months I received his reply, with some seventy-three pages of manuscript, containing statements from thirty-three different physicians together with about one pound of the Erythroxylon leaves made up in different parcels, as my friend could purchase.

The samples were mostly different in appearance, and as I found, different also in active properties. I went to work making tinctures, being guided in their use by the manuscript statements of the South American doctors, cautiously feeling my way, so to speak, for there was great diversity in the statements both as to the diseases in which it was indicated, and as to its physiological effects.

I prescribed it in chronic diseases of the lungs and bronchi, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, etc., and, when the article was good, always, or nearly so, with gratifying results; but, as my supply was small and much of it nearly or quite worthless, I did not reach any very definite conclusions. My first practice with the Coca was in the year 187o-71. In 1872 I saw the saturated tincture, also the Cocoain advertised by an eastern house. I immediately ordered a dozen pints of tincture and one-fourth dozen bottles of the Coca---. I used all of this except a single pint of the tincture within about one year—this pint I took myself in a case of convalescence from an attack of fever, in the spring of 1878. Some of this was used successfully in combating the opium-habit as indicated in an. article which I furnished New Preparations, and which was published in that journal July, 1878. I then promised a more extended research into the properties of the Erythroxylon Coca, which I have made under more favorable circumstances, for I have used the fluid extract as prepared by Messrs. Parke, Davis & Co., and since the date of my communication to New Preparations, I have purchased on an average one pound of their fluid extract Erythroxylon Coca a month, testing it in every variety of cases (except paralysis) that I considered dependent upon defective innervation.

My theory of tubercular consumption, for instance, is, that it is nervous disease, so, I think are dyspepsia and numerous other chronic diseases. Take consumption for an illustration: I think the brain and nerves become enervated from various causes, and from whatever cause, digestion and assimilation become impaired; next the blood, by losing some of its healthy constituents, becomes too thin and watery, and the circulation thereby languid and sluggish. Then, as it passes through the lungs, a spongy tissue, it parts with a portion of its fibrine, which, being semi-vitalized, organizes in the form of tubercle.

The opium and alcoholic habits, I conceive are formed thus: Both opium and alcohol are stimulants, and, if pushed, become narcotics. When taken into the stomach both alike produce, at first, an agreeable feeling of stimulation. Both soon pass away and leave the system more or less depressed. This condition calls for more stimulation, oft repeated the nervous system is more or less broken down, and a real disease is found, weakening the will-power—so much as to bring about a complete surrender of humanhood to the new master.

Now to cure any of these, we want, not only a stimulant, but a new tonic, something that will produce the stimulus of opium or alcohol, as the case may be, and leave the nervous system braced, so as not to be followed by any depression. My long experience with Erythroxylon Coca, and my close observation of its action in both disease and health, I believe that in this valuable agent we possess the very desirable drug—the desideratum.

In the country producing it, the natives eat it, and become as much its slave as De Quincy ever was to opium, or Beau Brummel ever was to wine, yet it produces no bad results. It promotes not only longevity but vital energy, enterprise and a desire for labor. Those addicted to the Coca habit are, at least in some places, called coqueros, and according to Dr. Quisina, one of the physicians reporting in my manuscript, live to an indefinite age. He reports an old man, a half-breed, 17o years old, and numbers of others over 1oo years of age, but states that the coqueros loose all their virile powers. Dr. Q, is a Bolivian physican, then (Jan. 187o) 58 years old. He and several others stated that it would, if used to excess, entirely destroy the sexual desire. My experience, however, is the reverse of this as far as it goes, but, I have made no "coqueros" in my practice. In two cases of impotency, treated with Coca alone, the desired effect has been produced, after the strychnia, savin, Ignatius bean and phosphorus treatment had utterly failed.

Mr. G. A., bachelor, about 47, residing on a farm with his servants only, came to me October 1879. He was greatly distressed in mind and utterly depressed in spirit. He had been a "great rake," and had, consequently, indulged to extreme excess his sexual passions, or, as Mrs. Elmira Slenker would put it, had been guilty, of great "sexual intemperance." He had lost all sexual power; had a serious gleet; was much reduced in flesh; was sullen and morose, sitting for hours silently gazing at vacuity, and then talking with great volubility of his affections as long as he could retain an auditor.

At first I gave him iron, quinine and strychnia in combination. He took this for six months. His appetite and digestion returned. He also regained his color and flesh, but his craziness remained because there was no amelioration of his impotency I then put him upon phosphorus with no better result after thirty days' use. At this juncture I prescribed for him two pounds fluid extract Coca| to be taken in teaspoonful doses four times a day, namely, before meals and at bed time. "It acted like a charm," and he was perfectly well of all his diseases before he had used all his medicine, and remains so at this writing, November, 188o.


Such is the intrinsic problem of any academic work that insists upon defining a particular drug was an object of “abuse”. Though it may certainly be, it may hardly necessarily be. --- would have done better to target not “cocaine” but instead “isolated cocaine in concentrated doses” or simply “concentrated cocaine”.

The purpose is to confuse. To confuse the acute and chronic effects of high doses of concentrated cocaine with the effects of low dose dilute cocaine. It is the sort of nonsense we can expect from an 'academia' utterly rotted out by 'good old boys' fraternal-ism, as is our government.

The dangers of alcoholism would be avoided if no other stimulant was taken...than...Vin Mariani

Coca as Tobacco Habit Cure

Thursday, September 22, 2011

Soros Bought into Glacial Paced Drug Policy Reform

"... pretending that MJ is the only illicit substance with therapeutic benefit, while maintaining the fear of the other drugs. Thereby, it serves to slow drug policy reform to a speed of progress best described as glacial."

He is laying the groundwork for the creation of a system under which government and corporations would legalize, dispense and advertise hard drugs, much like tobacco or alcohol, and supply addicts with needles and drug paraphernalia. In effect, Soros appears to be financing drug legalization for the purpose of creating a new market for federal payments to underwrite drug purchases for addicts. Soros appears to favor an indoor version of “Needle Park,” where addicts come to government offices to inject or smoke their drugs at taxpayer expense.

His position is also reflected in his funding of the ACLU, which itself favors the legalization of all drugs?even heroin and crack cocaine?and opposes virtually all measures taken to curtail drug use. In another example of its extremist approach, the group has rejected funds from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, and participation in the Combined Federal Campaign, because acceptance of the money would require adopting measures to make sure it does not employ terrorists or support terrorist activity.

Indeed. Talk about hard drugs as a given. But don't even mention the forms that such drugs would be otherwise be generally used if not for prohibition. Assume that cocaine will remain a concentrated white powder drug, but don't dare discuss Coca. Keep Vin Mariani generally forgotten, let alone Coca's use at substituting for caffeine, nor Tobacco. For such is what we are being dished out by the DPA's meagerly advocacy of 'Harm Reduction".

Wednesday, September 21, 2011

DPA Under-Sells "Harm Reduction"

STAGES of HARM REDUCTION- by Douglas Willinger:

STAGE 1 Clean needles and safer crack pipes.

STAGE 2 Pharmaceutic-ally consistent heroin and cocaine powders and sulfates.

STAGE 3 The Plant Drugs Instead of the Concentrates:

- Opium instead of concentrated morphine-heroin.

- Coca instead of concentrated cocaine.

- MJ instead of concentrated cocaine and or heroin or alcohol

STAGE 4 The Plant Drugs Instead of the Pharmaceuticals (Concentrated Patentable Synthetics)

- MJ, Coca and or Opium instead of anti-depressants, Oxycontin, etc.

STAGE 5 The Plant Drugs Instead of the Already Licit Plant Drugs:

- Coca instead of Coffee - caffeine

- Coca instead of Tobacco

Alas, the Drug Policy Alliance - successor organization to the Drug Policy Foundation - seriously short-sells the concept of 'Harm Reduction', limiting it essentially to the first stage: clean needles and safer crack pipes.

Reducing Drug Harms:

Harm reduction is a public health philosophy and intervention that seeks to reduce the harms associated with drug use and ineffective drug policies. A basic tenet of harm reduction is that there has never been, and will never be, a drug-free society. The Drug Policy Alliance advocates reducing the harms of drugs through accurate, fact-based drug education, drug-related illness and injury prevention, and effective treatment for problematic drug use. We believe that every solution with the potential to help people and to mitigate harm should be considered. We continue to seek innovative health approaches to drug use, drug treatment, and drug policy that are based on science and research.

Key Issues

Supervised Injection Facilities
Syringe Access
Replacement Therapy

That last one sounds the most promising.

Replacement Therapy

Drug substitution and maintenance approaches have a long history of providing individuals struggling with problematic drug use with legal access to drugs that would otherwise be obtained through illegal means. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Institute of Medicine, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), the World Health Organization and over four decades of government-funded, peer-reviewed medical research have unequivocally and repeatedly proven that substitution therapies like methadone maintenance are the most effective treatments for opioid dependence.

Our Priorities

Methadone is the most widely-used maintenance treatment. Used properly, methadone reduces drug use and related crime, death, and disease among heroin users. But methadone has been handicapped by restrictive government regulations, by misinformation - among treatment providers and drug users alike - and by prejudice against methadone treatment. Methadone is the most tightly restricted drug in the U.S. Doctors in general medical practice can't prescribe methadone, and regular pharmacies don't distribute it. Buprenorphine is a newer medication that has also been shown to be effective and it can be prescribed by physicians who have gone through special training. The Drug Policy Alliance advocates for making both methadone and buprenorphine more accessible, through changing attitudes, laws, regulations, and health insurance policies. Funding must be increased for access to methadone and buprenorphine through the public health system for those who cannot afford it otherwise.

For drug users who have not found success with methadone, the most dramatic developments in drug substitution therapies have been in the field of Heroin-Assisted Treatment (HAT). HAT programs, as part of comprehensive treatment strategies, provide substantial benefits to long-term heroin users who have not been responsive to other treatment. Studies have shown that those enrolled in HAT demonstrate a reduction in drug use and an improvement in overall physical and mental health. Additionally, several studies have found that individuals who participated in these programs significantly reduced their involvement in criminal activities, generating large cost savings. Heroin maintenance may be a feasible, effective and cost-effective strategy for reducing drug use and drug-related harm among long-term heroin users for whom other treatment programs have failed.

That's it?!

Anti-prohibitions have forever pointed out that prohibition removes any guaranteed consistency of potency for the white powder drug forms.

Richard Cowan had already by 1986 pointed out that prohibition also shifts the drug markets to the troublesome concentrated forms and their more direct modes of administration, encouraged by the prohibition-inflated price.

Richard B. Karel spoke before the U.S. Congress 'narcotics' committee in 1988 about changing the laws to reflect the pharmacological distinctions between Coca and concentrated cocaine.

I have already been doing this and more since 1987, in pointing out how the shift to the troublesome white powders was a shift away from highly beneficial useful substances as Coca, and how its banning was an act of agricultural mercantilism via the USDA Bureau of Chemistry at protecting the well established domestic U.S. agricultural commodity of Virginia Bright Leaf Tobacco, at a time of the construction of the Panama Canal (which would have significantly reduced the shipping times of Coca leaves to North Atlantic markets), and after the USDA's own experimentation with growing Coca and other drug crops commercially within the U.S.A.- which was a part of my talk as a panelist of the 1992 Foreign Trade panel moderated by Ethan Nadelman, after being published by the Drug Policy Foundation (DPF) in 1990, 1991 and 1992.

The now incarcerated activist Dana Beal, leader of Cures Not Wars, has likewise spent the last two plus decades advocating the use of the West African Iboga plant (root bark) as an addiction interrupter for physically addictive and psychologically addictive drugs- including cigarettes!

Yet the Drug Policy Alliance can only focus upon the lowest level of 'harm reduction' - clean needles and pipes etc, with the logical evolution of substitution (replacement therapy) dumbed down to simply the same labor-intensive wastefulness of methadone programs (imagine such inefficiencies and indignities placed upon cigarette and caffeine addicts- with nicotine patches and picking up say boxes of caffeine chewing gum requiring a visit to a doctor!) Panel proposals as “Coca: Turning Over a New Leaf Towards Reducing Health Care Costs.” (supported by its moderator Dr. Lester Grinspoon) and "Tinctures of Opium, Wines of Coca, etc: Popular, Pre-prohibition Uses of Natural Plants Perverted by Drug Prohibition into today's "Hard" Drug Plague" are somehow too radical.

This keeps such drugs as cocaine available and as now popularly used, in the more abusable concentrated forms, sustaining an empire of drug addiction treatment specialists to treat the victims of overly concentrated drug dosing, while roughly containing this cocaine market to its existing parameters, thereby protecting Coffee-caffeine and especially Tobacco products from the market competition of Coca leaf extract products. Hence, the DPA retreats from the 'Harm Reduction' concept's above defined STAGE 2, to STAGE 1, rather then dare progress to STAGE 3, let alone 4 or 5. Never mind the immense public health benefits of a switchover towards Coca, particularly with that conveniently protected by the 1906 US Food and Drugs Act commodity of Virginia Bright Leaf Tobacco- sucker's cigarette smoke.

And we wonder why heath care costs spiral upwards.

Or why does the DPA follows the DPF's post 1992 malevolent malaise towards the Coca issue, eliminating their cocaine panels (which I was a panelist in 1991 and 1992) after 1992, folding the issue into a virtual all woman's Latin America panel, and neglecting to highlight it even in 2011 the year of Bolivia's historic denunciation of the 1961 U.N. 'narcotics' treaty or 'convention'?

The Ira Glasser I had met at the 1993 DPF conference, with British Medical journalist Anita Bennett seemed sincerely interested in learning about such cost-effective therapeutic uses of Coca such as easing childbirth and hence reducing the incidences of prolonged labor- brain damaged newborns.

Yet apparently not at anytime since- if conference agendas are to suggest anything.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Dana Beal Sentenced- 2.5 Years Prison + 2.5 Parole/Probation

Dana Beal 2010

Today, Dana Beal was sentenced for his January 2011 officially sanctioned rip-off, to 2 1/5 years prison, plus 2 1/5 years parole/probation, with credit for 257 days already served since January 2011.

Monday, September 19, 2011

DPA Raising Suspicions with its Continuing Neglect of Harm Reduction - Coca

The DPA continues to neglect the coca issue along with that of the plants perverted into white power poisons of abuse- focusing upon Medical Marijuana and limited sanitary measures for the existing concentrated drug forms, thus pretending that MJ is the only illicit substance with therapeutic benefit, while maintaining the fear of the other drugs. Thereby, it serves to slow drug policy reform to a speed of progress best described as glacial.

Having attended the conferences of the DPA and it predecessor organization the Drug Policy Foundation since 1989, I noted that the DPF was more comprehensive until about 1993- for instance downplaying the very issue that inspired their creation -- the hysteria over cocaine --- eliminating the cocaine panel and folding that issue into a virtual woman's panel on Latin America.

Now this year - 2011 - Bolivia has DENOUNCED the 1961 U.N. "Narcotics" Treaty, yet the DPA still refuses to invite Evo Morales to its conference, let alone hold a Coca panel- lest it educate people that Coca has many benefits that remain widely unknown because of the drug war.

So what could be the reason, indeed the hidden hand, upon and strangling drug policy reform?

The funders? George Soros may be involved with certain investments that would suffer under a comprehensive legalization program- e.g. allowing the return of the plant drugs no only mainly known of their concentrated drug forms. IOW Opium and Coca leaf extract products rather then simply the white powders of concern, as heroin and cocaine HCI. However, the problem with the DPF came before Soros became its funder. Likewise, the previous major funder Richard Dennis was involved with commodities trading- yet the DPF was way better run under his time, than his successors (post 1992).

The founders? Co founder Arnold S. Trebach was a notorious apologist for the drug war as supposedly simply well-intended:
Despite its bad reputation, however, I am, on balance, prepared to ascribe “a good motive”, in Senator Lane’s words, to the HNA itself. Although I have long considered it a repressive piece of legislation, a fresh reading of the historical record now leads me to believe that it was, on the whole, a rather intelligent, rational and progressive one.
The Heroin Solution, Arnold Trebach, at p 122
Yet the DPF was still a better organization during its early years (1987-1992), with my observations of Trebach, along with DPF now DPA figures of Ira Glasser and Ethan Nadelman, being yanked from higher up in the political pyramid.

Rather the problem was already there- something working upon behalf of slowing the pace of drug policy reform in order to go the easiest upon the existing markets threatened by re-legalization and re-popularization of the plant drugs.

Coca after all had been advocated (and feared by the USDA and its politically allied AMA-APhA) as a "Tobacco Habit Cure".

So then, what about this? (- towards the end of the very introductory DPF letter of Trebach and Zeese dated March 1990):
The Foundation is not a legalization organization, even though many in the Foundation support outright legalization. The Foundation is concerned with a variety of issues, including education the public about the effects of drug use, preventing the spread of AIDS among drug users, allowing the medical use of currently prohibited drugs, allowing doctors to prescribe drugs as they and their patients see necessary, expanding the availability of drug treatment, creating more effective and less corrupt police forces, preventing the erosion of civil liberties, ensuring the proper use of drug tests in society, and developing social, instead of criminal, controls to prevent drug abuse.

The Foundation is an education, research and legal center. It publishes books, articles and newsletter; rewards people for outstanding achievement in the field of drug policy; responds to media and scholarly information requests; presents regular forums and annual international conference; and represents in court those wronged by the drug war.

The Foundation is a charitable corporation under the laws of the District of Columbia and section 501 ©(3) of the U.S Internal Revenue Code. Thus, all contributions to the Foundation are tax-deductable. To maintain its independence, the Drug Policy Foundation neither seeks nor will it accept government funding. The Drug Policy Foundation extends thanks to these persons and organizations who provided vital support during 1988-89. Special thanks go to our three largest contributors: the Chicago Resource Center and its president, Richard Dennis, and executive director, Mary Ann Snyder; the Linnel Foundation in Boston, Mass., and the late Robert Linnell; and Anne “Petey” Cerf of Lawrence, Kan. Their support was and continues to be invaluable to the work of the Foundation.

While the Drug Policy Foundation has outstanding counsel in Kevin Zeese, the leading Washington law firm Covington and Burling accepted the Foundation as a pro bono publico [for the public good] client in regard to corporate and tax matters in 1988. We have received valuable advice from Marialuisa Gallozzi, the Covington and Burling associate assigned to take primary responsibility for advising the Foundation. Having Covington and Burling in our corner is a source of great comfort.”
Covington & Burling just happens to be perhaps the largest law firm legal representative of food, drug and pharmaceutical industries, and is the firm that has not only represented but rather COORDINATED the legal representation of the cigarette industry.

For nearly the same amount of time, Covington & Burling has had its pro bono program

If you are aware of the history of the drug war as agricultural mercantilism to protect Tobacco from Coca, and aware of the Coca issue's neglect, the plausible potential conflict of interest is quite evident.

Holder-Breuer Law Firm Long Involved with Drug Policy

DPF-Washington, D.C. Pro Bono Legal Connection

DPF Advised by C&B Food & Drug & Insurance Attorney

DPA Refuses Agricultural Panel

So far, additional information about this valuable and other such advice given to the Drug Policy Foundation, this Covington & Burling relationship with the various drug policy reform organizations, nor any other such pro bono program relationships regarding organizations promoting drug policy reform, has not been forthcoming.

Wednesday, September 14, 2011

Jesuitical Feelgoodism

Ignore Coca Leaf and its countless benefits for Humanity

Sunday, September 11, 2011

Free Dana Beal

September 11, 2011

Hon. Robert P. VanDeHey
Grant County Courthouse
Post Office Box 89
Lancaster, WI 53813-0089

Re: Dana Beal

I am writing in support of the patriotic hero Dana Beal, who has been fighting for the rights of sick and dis-advantaged people his whole life. Dana is a heroes’ hero who should be free to do his missionary work. He is a man of the peace pipe, the same peace pipe that Calvin Coolidge smoked with the Native Americans. It is a mistake to have Dana Beal in jail. I am certain that hemp farmers George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and hemp merchant Benjamin Franklin are ashamed that the Declaration of Independence was not made into law. It's sad how the children of the American Dream are dealing with prison, homelessness, poverty and uncertainty when something as simple as adapting a document signed by Dana's ancestors, our ancestors, that would protect us from government created cruelty for victim-less crimes.

Dana’s been part of my life, an inspiration, for over 25 years, going back to my participating in his Million Marijuana Marches in New York City, longer if I count the years of just going to the rallies, having fun and learning as much as I could about how to save the world.

When Dana and Sister Somayah Kambui produced the first march in Los Angeles, he made a way for me to help out so I could continue the conversation about why we should stop the drug war and use hemp’s 50,000 products and the five million jobs that can come from it to help make the world better. Medicine, paper, building materials, foods, energy, fabrics, there are so many non-toxic uses for this marvelous plant.

Dana’s introduced me to the powerful peace activist David Crockett Williams who’s helped me co-publish both the free energy book DEPALMA, FREE ENERGY AND THE N-MACHINE by MIT professor and inventor Bruce DePalma and PRELUDE TO INTIMACY by Earth Day co-founder and wrongfully imprisoned Ira Einhorn about his years on the run.

Thanks to Dana’s introduction I was able to assisted hemp activist Richard M. Davis of the USA Hemp Museum with his Hemp For Victory book series A GLOBAL WARMING SOLUTION [Dana’s on page 41], THE WONDER HERB [Dana’s on pages 75 &148] and THE TRILLION DOLLAR CROP [the only reason he’s not in that one is the economic papers were long and filled up the 250 page printer imposed limitations. He will be in part two on the subject of hemp as an economic empowerment tool.] Some days I feel I can trace most of our problems back to prohibition in some form.

I’ve seen him speak truth to power many times, even in cases where who he was talking to had a gun and the right to shoot him. Dana is one of the most courageous men I’ve ever known. I’m short too and he taught me a lot about how to stand tall in the face of opposition. There is so much unnecessary opposition to a plant that can do so much to help so many people.

Dana’s work in Ibogaine, nature’s solution to Iran Contra crack, cocaine is powerful and dynamic in scope. A lot of problems that our young people are dealing with can be solved by this simple plant that serves as a right of passage from youth to adulthood. In addition to the internal mental health benefits these plants offer, a simple program that gives people a chance to work with the soil, growing plants like Iboga and hemp, would do a lot with the mental health epidemic we witness on Maury and the Jerry Springer shows 5 days a week.

Dana has so many more souls to positively influence. I’ve put what Dana and those he introduced me to, to good use. I just finished a proposal on how to use hemp food to solve the UN declared world food crisis and am helping produce a series about the economics of hemp (Jay Greathouse & Gatewood Galraith) on the 20 year radio/video show Casper Leitch’s, Time4Hemp, broadcast M-F on American Freedom Radio Network. during the months of September and October with a series on hemp food during November and December, 2011. I’ve been able to co-produce a series of web videos on the subject of how to use hemp to solve our problems for the USA Hemp Museum and the Willie Nelson Peace Research Institute. Were it not for the decades of encouragement that Dana has shared with me, I’d still be thinking inside the safety box, instead of beyond to what is true.

Like Gandhi making salt so that his people can live free, Dana’s whole purpose of being is to do the right thing, co-creating the highest good for all concerned. Dana with hemp is exactly the same thing as what Gandhi did with salt, only hemp is a little bit more complex.

In the 90’s when I lived in Harlem, Dana’s wisdom and council helped me use hemp and computers to keep the Crips and Bloods drama out of Harlem at the time. Many folks commented that if it was there nobody knew it was going on. I’ve been out of NYC since ’98 and I hear it’s gotten worse. Because of the drug war, there are over 29,000 children under 5 who recently died for the want of hemp food (used to heal other famines) in Somalia. We’ve made the hemp peace pipe illegal and wonder why we have problems with violence and war.

As a result of the drug war, I’m experiencing America like I never imagined it could be. Here in Los Angeles there are about 10,000 homeless children who could be housed, their parents provided with jobs by locally grown and processed hemp building materials. The zero job growth experienced last month in the nation could be replaced with a job bonanza of new hemp products on the market from farming to consumer satisfaction.

Dana and marijuana/Ibogaine reminds me of the Barbara Streisand character in Yentl and education.

Like it was illegal for Yentl to learn, it is illegal for Dana to use hemp, unless the court decides to throw out the non-violent drug cases so it can focus on real crime.

Like it was illegal for Yentl to read books intended for men, it’s illegal for Dana to use hemp, intended for other countries like China, not home. (Hemp is legal in China, the world’s leading economy).

Given the breath of ailments that hemp helps heal, how could he settle for just a piece of healing sky from the pharmaceutical industry when there is a huge sky of herbal healing alternatives that work better in many cases with zero deaths associated with use.

Dana is guilty of doing what any caring soul would do. DON’T JUST SIT THERE – DO SOMETHING TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM.

What would you do if you knew effective medicine was illegal?

How many people must one watch die in misery when a simple, natural, zero deaths hemp joint can bring so much relief and peace?

What would you do if it was illegal to research new applications? Must we still be pulling the blinds because the neighbors might see?

What if you knew what would help a sick person but had to risk jail to get it to them? Would you risk your freedom?

What if the patient was you, or a family member, or a priest?

That’s where Dana is in his life, jailed for doing the right thing, getting medicine to sick people. He’s answered each call for the highest good to the best of his ability. It’s an unfair position to put such a righteous soul in jail. It’s like the Romans jailing Jesus or Birmingham, Alabama jailing Dr. Martin Luther King. ‘Taint fittin. It just ‘taint fittin’ to jail such a righteous soul. He’s done no man any harm and helped millions benefit by being the leading marijuana voice in New York, the biggest market.

Like Dr. King and the FBI, Dana will be vindicated by history and the Will of the People. The future will see him as a persecuted soul who gave his life to free the future from the failed politics of the past. Please use the full mercy of the court and free Dana.

Dana is needed to help the world implement the will of the people, which is to end hemp prohibition and re-institute the truly successful program HEMP FOR VICTORY, that could finance itself. For example, the president recently proposed a jobs proposal for over $400 billion, maximum net 2 million jobs or $200,000 per job. $200 billion invested in a Hemp For Victory program would produce 5 million jobs (50,000 products times 10 companies per product times 10 employees per company) or $40,000 per job. Given the level of product innovation hemp offers, the reality can exceed this projection based on the $1.7 billion medical marijuana field already exceeds the 10x10 calculation.

Dana was so missed at this year’s Global Marijuana March that his absence has served as a lightening rod to push us over the edge to where the majority of the people are in favor of stopping the drug war. He picked up in the liberation movement where South Africa’s Steven Biko left off.

The Declaration of Independence was a document to assure people freedom from oppression. It’s a shame it’s not law in truth because it if it were law, the drug war would be illegal by violating our right to the pursuit of happiness, which is only an illusion. But it is law in spirit and the drug war is making fodder of the people by every indicator.

I recommend you engage in a dialogue with Peter Christ, one of the co-founders of Law Enforcement Against Prohibition to learn about the need for the courts to restore sanity to justice. We need to focus the criminal justice system on criminals that create harm, not healers and children and other innocent souls just interacting with nature.

Here’s one more reason we need Dana Beal Free. There are a lot of sick people from World Trade Center Illness. The fallout was as toxic as drain cleaner. Medical marijuana can help with the suffering and disengage the trigger for violent health episodes. Stress kills and medical grades and higher reduce stress while hemp food provides vital nutrients.

The City is lying when they say it’s just the first responders who are getting sick. The first recorded case of World Trade Center Illness was 42 year old attorney Felicia Dunn Jones on February 10, 2002. Asbestos does not wash out and the dust settled over everything. The EPA lied on 9/13/11 when they said ‘the air is safe to breathe and the water safe to drink.’ New York, his homeland, needs Dana Beal to help people with the untold diseases from the toxic substance mixture they were exposed to 10 years ago. In incubation period for chemically induced cancers is 10-15 years. For more on the subject I wrote an article in the book HEMP FOR VICTORY: THE WONDER HERB by Richard M. Davis. [pages 94-98]

How does hemp help with World Trade Center Illness? Hemp has a history of helping with respiratory and digestive problems. The blend of toxins makes the situation worse. Dana is at Ground Zero of World Trade Center Illness. He needs 50 tons of marijuana to begin to deal with the crisis that the heroes of 9/11 are dealing with, all the heroes which include anyone in the area at the time. They were heroic enough to survive. Dana needs to be leading the city in a hemp planting program to help clean up the toxins there. And of course the work of Rick Simpson should be applied here and elsewhere.

PLEASE - Don’t make the same mistake that was made with the great and dynamic author, publisher and activist Peter McWilliams. Peter was a victim of murder by court order. He was an AIDS patient who choked on his own vomit being denied by court the medical marijuana he was using to control his nausea. If your soul is torn for a rationalization to stand up for the Will of the People which is the right thing, McWilliams explained in his book title ‘AIN’T NOBODY’S BUSINESS IF YOU DO: THE ABSURDITY OF CONSENSUAL CRIMES IN OUR FREE COUNTRY.

I am prayerfully confident that you will judge in favor of the people and FREE DANA BEAL. Millions of lives are depending on your decision.

Thank You


J. Nayer Hardin
Computer Underground Railroad Ent.

Byron Walker
P.O. Box 10
La Farge, WI 54639

Sunday, September 4, 2011

Ignore Harm Reduction of Highlighting Agricultural Mercantilism- Drug Policy Alliance

of the enormous continuing mega boondoggle of Tobacco Mercantilism Against Coca

We're not going to move forward with your proposal below on agricultural policy because I believe it's still not a clear connection for many of our attendees, and doesn't touch on their main work areas. As for the topic of coca, we won't be having an entire panel, but if you come to the conference I think you'll find that it's addressed on a couple of them, primarily panels with a South / Latin America focus.

Drug Policy Alliance- August 15, 2011
Coca is the stimulant described as the safest natural stimulant plant, whereas Tobacco the most dangerous- taking some 100 million plus lives during the first century of mass manufactured Virginia Bright Leaf cigarettes.

Coca was what the U.S. government via its United States Department of Agriculture targeted for its sale and use as a "Tobacco habit cure" and its growing popularity particularly through the southeastern U.S. where Tobacco predominates politically and agriculturally.

Coca was what the British medical journalist Anita Bennett informed the 1993 'Latin America' where she met myself and Ira Glasser who then expressed an avid interest in her notation of the utility of coca tea to women for easing childbirth (relaxing the muscles of the vagina) and hence reducing the tragic instances of brain damaged newborns.

The DPF to its credit approved the COCA ’95 panel proposal that I moderated with speakers Roger Rumrill, Anthony Richard Henman, Dr. Jorge Hurtado (by video) and UCLA’s Dr. Ronald K. Siegel, which was that breakout panel session’s 2nd best attended (including Ethan Nadelman and Jacob Sullum), bested only by a California topic specific panel at a conference held that year in Santa Monica, California. It also deserves credit for publishing Anthony Richard Henman’s paper in its 1989 conference compendium, as well as my papers "The Ever-changing Ever confused Popular Conception of Cocaine"; "Cocaine Prohibition Water or Gasoline [for treating the flames of drug abuse]"; and "Cocaine Conversion- Onwards to Coca!" respectively in 1990, 1991 and 1992 (though strangely in contrast to the 1989 Henman article, don’t appear within the DPA online library). Likewise, I appreciate being placed upon the DPF cocaine panels in 1991 and 1992, plus Ethan Nadelman’s decision placing me upon the Foreign Trade panel that latter year.

Yet ever since the DPF/DPA has seriously stalled out on the Coca issue.

It stopped holding a cocaine panel at each year’s conference (even as continuing otherwise regarding MJ). It has relegated coca to a sub-topic within a generally female ‘Latin America’ panel.

It denied every paper proposal that I have made to them after 1992, and have published or presented precious little regarding coca- a rare exception being an excellent 1st place awarded paper in the DPF’s brief (1996-2000) ‘Student Paper Competition’ – appearing as a presentation hand-written into the schedule at the conference itself and thus not appearing in the printed conference materials.

It denied my 1994 panel proposal- ‘Coca- Turning Over a New Leaf Towards Reducing Health Care Costs’, that had the support of Harvard’s Dr. Lester Grinspoon, who phoned DPF President Arnold S. Trebach, only to be rebuffed.

It denied all of my other proposed panels regarding Coca as well as the broader issue of the drug war’s perversion of drug forms and modes of use, such as that in 1997- ‘Tinctures of Opium, Wines of Coca, etc: Popular, Pre-Prohibition Uses of Natural Plants Perverted by Drug Prohibition into today's "Hard" Drug Plague’.

Should not that alone have qualified Coca as ‘HARM REDUCTION’?

It’s undeniably bad to ban whole Coca- ensuring that cocaine is only available in highly concentrated forms.

It’s undeniably worse to ban Coca- ensuring that the far larger markets in general for stimulants is denied Coca, while the stimulant that is the one that those pushing the early 1900s Coca ban were evidently most concerned with protecting- the one that’s the most politically established in the U.S., and the one most dangerous: Virginia Bright Leaf Tobacco.

Yet drug policy reform organizations utterly neglect this broader issue of this Panama Canal construction era Agricultural Mercantilism (the U.S. took over the Canal Project in 1903 and completed and opened it in the year of the Harrison ‘Narcotic’ Act banning ‘Coca, cocaine, etc”- 1914- with the USDA exploring the domestic feasibility of Coca, Opium and other drug crops agricultural potential): the shameful history of the USDA-AMA-APhA Tobacco-Pharma alliance embodied by such figures involved with this trio of special interests described as a ‘knight showing great prowess’ Harvey Washington Wiley, and the subsequent decades many cigarette advertisements in medical journals. Though the DPF/DPA accepted by 1999 ‘History Panel’ proposal, I, along with the Coca-cocaine issue and the early politicking of the AMA-APhA and USDA would be excluded, including at the subsequent such panel in 2003.

Harvey Wiley Resume

Given their relative safety this has been an absolute disaster for health care costs:

In each major category of intoxicant used by our species, there appear to be one or two drug plants that researchers have noted, are more controllable, hence safer, than all the other plants or synthetics in that category. Coca leaf stands out among all the stimulants, licit and illicit, as the easiest to control and the one least likely to produce toxicity or dependency.
And they would know that in 1914:

... there are tens of thousands of people in the United States who die every year from the excessive use of cigarettes; and yet I find Senators still pulling away at the cigarette as though t were a perfectly harmless thing. I believe the Senator will agree with me that there are many thousands of people who die from what is called tobacco cancer, a cancerous growth affecting the throat from overuse of cigars; and we find perhaps 60 percent of the Senators pulling away at the cigar as unconcerned as though no one were dying as a result of these cigars...

U.S. Congress, Senator Porter James McCumber (R) North Dakota, August 15, 1914
Nonetheless our governments have proven their loyalty to this apostasy from common sense with the descent into and continuation of this criminal mercantilism primarily for the sake of Virginia Bright Leaf Tobacco that came in the early 1900s.

The United National World Health Organization reports that Tobacco cigarettes have cost some 100 million premature deaths during the 1900s.

How would finally beginning to highlight this suppression of coca/protection of Virginia Bright Leaf Tobacco not qualify as HARM REDUCTION?

Illustration: 1900s sales chart of cigarette production spikes at the times of the 1906, 1914 and 1937 drug control statutes.

By banning Coca, and protecting Tobacco- conveniently ‘grandfathered’ by the 1906’s Act’s exclusion of its USDA based jurisdiction [!] over substances not included in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia – allowing its mass sale in a fashion that would otherwise be considered adulterated and misbranded for the unlabeled additives, and reckless for such as burn accelerants to boost sales while increasing house fires, the authorities have not merely created the black market perversion of Coca into concentrated cocaine, rather they have additionally suppressed and denied a highly useful stimulant, for the sake of allowing the rapid spread of the most dangerous and physically addictive stimulant that’s politically established in the U.S. This has undeniably tremendous costs economically in lost productivity, lives and enormously increased medical costs.

The DPA must not pretend that such does not qualify as “HARM REDUCTION”.

Holding this panel proposal “Agricultural Mercantilism” would be excellent as a start.

Panel Proposal for 2009 Drug Policy Alliance International Conference

Harvey Wiley

Agricultural policies gave forth the existing drug control regimen; this dates back to its milestone of the 1906 U.S. Pure Foods and Drugs Act granting the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture (U.S.D.A.) the power to ban a substance from interstate commerce via declaring an ingredient as deleterious to health, and of limiting its jurisdiction to substances within the U.S. Pharmacopoeia from which Tobacco was conveniently dropped 1 year earlier in 1905.

Since the U.S.D.A. was established to promote agricultural commodities, its empowerment would have severely unappreciated detriments regarding the market protection of the most intrinsically toxic yet domestic agricultural commodity of Tobacco from the foreign 'menace' of least toxic Coca.

With the public health thus beneath mercantilism, the consequences have been thus severe for numerous people, entities and interests.

Potential Speakers:

Sharon Y. Eubanks , former prosecutor for the U.S. Department of Justice, and the lead prosecutor for a R.I.C.O. act suit against the major cigarette companies by the U.S. department of justice, who in 2005 resigned in response to the Bush administration’s commands to reduce the proposed settlement by 90%. She gave interviews to CBS about this.

Marialuisa S. Gallozzi is a food, drug and insurance company attorney. Since 1987 she has been with the Washington, D.C. law firm Covington and Burling, long established with food and drug law. In 1988, she was assigned “primary responsibility for advising the [Drug Policy] foundation” according to a letter dated March 1990 appearing in the 1988-1990 Biennial Report of the Drug Policy Foundation (a reform organization) by its Presidents Dr. Arnold S. Trebach and Kevin Zeese, crediting her with giving them valuable advice.

Her activities include that upon GMO plant made pharmaceuticals, as a panelist of “Perils and Pitfalls of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals” with her paper “The U.S. Food Industry’s View of Plant Based Pharmaceuticals”, viewable here.

Her published papers include "Inactive Ingredients in Over-the-Counter Drug Products," Regulatory Affairs FOCUS magazine (August 2002).

She is prominent within insurance law, so described as:

Rising star Marialuisa Gallozzi enters the tables in recognition of her vast experience in asbestos, silica, pharmaceutical and other coverage claims, in addition to insurer insolvencies. Described as “an expert on London insolvency matters and schemes of arrangement,” she works with US, Bermuda and London market insurers and captive insurers. Peers consider her “an intellectually strong negotiator and adviser with excellent judgment.”


About Covington & Burling:

It was initially founded in 1919 by Judge James Harry Covington, a former U.S. Representative from the 4th District of Maryland (1909-1913) who was in office shortly after the enactment of the 1906 Food and Drugs Act, through the time leading to the 1914 Harrison Act, and who was appointed as a Judge by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson. It became Covington and Burling with the addition of Chicago lawyer Edward Burling, who was married to Louise Peasley, a daughter of railroad tycoon James C. Peasley of the Burlington Railroad also president of the National State Bank (of whom another daughter Mathilda was married to Frederic A. Delano- uncle of later U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was on the original Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1914), who moved to Washington, D.C. to become chief counsel of the Shipping Board during World War I, following U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's government’s nationalization of the railroads and seizing control of the shipping industry. (The early 1900s brought a sharp increase in federal law-making, not limited to the 1906 Food and Drug Act and the 1914 Harrison Narcotics Tax Act.)

The founders of Covington & Burling foresaw the pervasive effects of the forthcoming era of federal legislation, regulation, and taxation. In 1919, they sought to create a firm in the nation's capital that could advise and represent corporations located anywhere in the nation or the world on a wide range of legal issues. Today our Washington office has over 300 lawyers representing clients according to the highest standards and fulfilling the firm's strong commitment to public service. Our lawyers are supported by nearly 100 paralegals and by information management specialists in the library, and in the litigation and practice support, and technology departments.

This firm’s oldest practices is its presence in food and drug law, with its web-site in 2005 listing 18 attorneys at its Washington, D.C. headquarters – 9 partners including two former Chief Counsels to the Food and Drug Administration (including Marialuisa Gallozzi, ”assigned to take primary responsibility for advising the [Drug Policy] Foundation”), and 9 associates – who devote all or a major portion of their time to this practice, plus 6 additional lawyers at its offices in London and Brussels. According to the firm’s site at

Covington & Burling has a large and comprehensive food and drug law practice. The Firm’s food and drug practice began at the Firm’s founding in 1919 with representation of the National Canners Association (now the National Food Processors Association and still a client). From that time, the Firm’s practice has steadily expanded to include all types of food and drug work and work relating to scientific and technology research. Past and present clients for which the Firm serves as general counsel or principal outside counsel include the Animal Health Institute, American Institute of Biological Sciences, American Bakers Association, American Forest & Paper Association, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Corn Refiners Association, Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association, Epilepsy Foundation of America, Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils, International Dairy Foods Association, National Food Laboratories, National Pharmaceutical Council, Consumer Healthcare Products Association and Toxicology Forum.

This work includes political organization on behalf of its clientèle industries. According to the firm’s site at

The Firm was actively involved on behalf of major clients in connection with each important statutory revision in the federal food and drug laws, including the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and its major amendments, including —

the Pesticide Amendments of 1954,
the Food Additives Amendment of 1958,
the Color Additive Amendments of 1960,
the Drug Amendments of 1962,
the Animal Drug Amendments of 1968,
the Medical Device Amendments of 1976,
the Orphan Drug Act,
the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984,
the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1988,
the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1988,
the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990,
the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990,
the Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992,
the Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994,
the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994,
the Animal Drug Availability Act of 1996,
the FDA Export Reform and Enhancement Act of 1996,
the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, and
the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997.

Our lawyers have advised or represented clients in a wide range of legislative matters at both the federal and state levels. We have prepared draft legislation and analyzed legislative proposals, including interaction with Congressional members and staff. We have prepared Congressional testimony and advised clients in connection with committee and subcommittee hearings. Our lawyers have advised clients on compliance with new statutory enactments, and represented trade association clients in rulemaking proceedings to implement new statutes. As the 104th Congress undertook to address the issues of general regulatory reform and more specifically FDA reform, firm lawyers played a major role in conjunction with food, drug and cosmetic industry trade associations and other clients in analyzing and drafting legislative reform proposals, and in preparing testimony for presentation at committee hearings.

Covington & Burling’s clientele amongst pharmaceutical and agriculture related firms includes:

GlaxoSmithKline, Monsanto, Merck, Warner-Lambert (Pfizer), Eli Lilly, The Balli Group

Covington for decades has been a preeminent antitrust advisor, regularly providing U.S. and EU antitrust advice to Rx and OTC pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology firms around the world in connection with mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, litigation, R&D collaborations, licensing transactions and other strategic transactions. We have been home to four former heads of the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division and two Chairmen of the ABA Antitrust Law Section - a unique distinction among law firms actively practicing in the antitrust area.

Unmentioned in the firm’s web site is its long established activities as one of, if not unquestionably in every way the world’s largest, legal representative of such agricultural-commodity related industries in one way or another, of pharmaceutical and Tobacco (cigarette) interests.

Covington & Burling also represents every major American tobacco company, including Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., Lorillard Tobacco Co., Philip Morris Inc., and R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co, as well as the now-defunct industry trade association, the Tobacco Institute. The firm helped develop and coordinate the Whitecoat Project, an attempt to keep controversy alive regarding the dangers of passive smoking by hiring scientists to back up and attempt to give credibility to the tobacco industry's point of view that second-hand smoke is not a health risk.

According to internal tobacco industry documents analyzed in 1999 by Public Citizen and the Center for Justice and Democracy, Covington & Burling was a principle organizer and funding conduit for tort reform efforts on behalf of the tobacco industry. Covington & Burling has acted as a pipeline to direct money from its tobacco industry clients to tort reform groups in the states and across the country. For example, in 1995, the tobacco industry allocated nearly $5.5 million to the American Tort Reform Association (ATRA), more than half of ATRA’s $10.2 million budget according to the Associated Press.8

A memo written by a Covington & Burling partner that year reveals the extent to which the law firm helped orchestrate the tobacco industry's tort reform agenda. Written to the industry’s "Tort Reform Policy Committee," the memo called for an expansion of efforts, including a "communications program … intended to enhance our ability to enact favorable legislation at both the federal and state level." The memo noted that "these media activities, to be effective, must not be linked to the tobacco industry."

Covington & Burling is also one of the largest contributors of pro bono work for a wide array of causes from Big Brothers/Sisters to medical marijuana (Therapeutic Cannabis), and has provided valuable legal assistance in a number of such cases, including that by that firm’s Partner Dr. Michael Michelson. This includes work for various tax exempt status Foundations dedicated to some issue or another, including the Drug Policy Foundation. Philanthropic and Grant-Making Organizations.

The Firm’s lawyers are regularly sought out to advise on the creation, reorganization and funding of private foundations (including family and company foundations, as well as foundations affiliated with associations or other tax-exempt entities), supporting organizations and public charities and the use of charitable contributions to accomplish specific client goals. In addition, charitable remainder and charitable lead trusts, which require analysis of the federal and state income, gift, estate and generation-skipping transfer tax consequences of each structure, are used to achieve clients’ charitable, tax and family goals. Our clients include the Eugene and Agnes E. Meyer Foundation, the Packard Humanities Institute, Verizon Foundation and UTC Foundation. In one instance we represent affiliated grant-making organizations worth well in excess of $1 billion.

Covington & Burling’s practice with foundations is a long established connection, with the name Frederic A. Delano (Edward Burling’s bother in law by marriage), appearing amongst the 1909 founders of the Carnegie Institution of Washington D.C. (with Daniel Coit Gilman, Cleveland H. Dodge, Andrew Dickson White, and Elihu Root, Darius Ogden Mills and William E. Morrow), and in 1921 the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was incorporated by Frederic A. Delano, Robert S. Brookings, Elihu Root, who became its first president, John W. Davis, Dwight Morrow, James T. Shotwell. Frederic A. Delano’s name appears as the 1924 founder of the influential Washington D.C. planning group “Committee of 100.”


The Drug Policy Alliance grossly undersells drug policy reform by limiting 'Harm Reduction' more simply towards things as clean needles and safer crack pipes.

Coca Come Back